With great respect, I offer you this

Sanskrit Study Guide

for the Guru Gita

These words and word-parts are the bricks and mortar
from which the graceful architecture of
Sanskrit literature and scriptures were built.
May this resource make it easier for you to make them your own.

Introduction

All the words of the Guru Gita up to verse 18 are found below in this thematically organized dictionary. Although incomplete, you can still use it to learn a lot of Sanskrit.

Visit this page periodically to review what you have learned and study another section.


Table of contents

Sandhi Be Pronouns
Complementizers Adverbs Determiners
WH-forms Suffixes Prepositions
Truth & Negation Comparatives Vocative names
Knowledge Consciousness Skill Development
People Personal adjectives Adjectives
Purpose Love Life Cycle
Places Forms of God Verbs
Words about language Religious practices Ethics
Time Counting Writings
Plants Place names Other
Body Parts Common Objects
Unclassified Unknown

Sandhi:

tat-laabhatallaabha
tat-nivaasotannivaaso (his dwelling)
smaret-nityamsmaren nityam (should remember always)
anyat-na bhaavayetanyanna bhaavayet (other not should-think. Don't think about anything else)
prayatnah + tuprayatnastu
sah + ahamsoham
jagat + mayaajaganmayaa
ananyaat+chintayantoananyaash+chintayanto (nothing else+thinking)
Top

Be:

astibe
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Pronouns

ham/aham (I), me(to me), mama(my), maam (me, of me)
tvam, tvat, tava, (you-nominative, you-dative, your)
te (to you)
tat (to-that), sah (that), asau (that), tat (him/her/its)
teshaam for them
yat which
yasmaat ?which?
etat this
asya of this
atha thus
sva- reflexive particle: -self
prati each
anya other
anyat ?other-be?
ananyaat nothing else
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Complementizers:

cha and/also
iha only
eva/iva indeed
evam thus
tu, tv- indeed, even (this in contrast to other things you might have supposed)
api also, even
hi only, surely
yatha in which way
tatha thus/and/etc.: and the like
tathaiva everything like that
tasmaat therefore
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Adverbs:

samyak properly
iha only
sadaa always
dhruvam surely
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Determiners:

sarva all
sarvam all-noun
naanaa various, numerous, many
vividhaani various types
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WH-forms:

kena by what
kim what
yat which
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Prefixes:

su- easy, beautiful
dur- difficult
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Suffixes:

-aani plural
-aanam plural nominative (the subject of the sentence)
-ena by means of (prayatnena: by effort)
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Prepositions:

vina,bina excluding, without
-ishu (located) in X (e.g., trishu lokeshu, in the three worlds)
-asya of X (e.g., pankasya: of mire)
-artham for the purpose of X (e.g., vairaagya siddhyartham, for the purpose of obtaining detachment)
-ai to X (moortyai, to the form; trailokye, in the three worlds)
-yaa through (bhakti+aa = bhaktyaa: through devotion)
-(n)aam for X (devaanaam, for gods; teshaam, for them; sarveshaam, for all)
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Truth and Negation:

na not
api even
tu only
satya truth
satyam (it is) true
sada true, always
tattva that-ness (i.e., essence, principle)
samshayah doubt
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Vocative Names

Bho Swaamin O Monk
Devi Goddess
varaanane O beautiful one
sri Respected, holy, "sir"
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Comparatives:

para beyond
parama supreme
paramam (thesupreme)
paraatpara beyond the greatest
maha big, great
mahaan great one
-aadi etc.
-aadikam etc. (nominative of "and the rest"))
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Knowledge

jnaana knowledge
vidya knowledge
ajnaana ignorance
vijnaana wisdom
avijnaaya without knowing
ajnaanasambhava ?ignorant attitude?
buddhi intellect
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Consciousness

chetasaam chetah + -aam ?? mentally, nom.
chittam the stuff of consciousness
chetayate experiences consciously
dhyaana concentration
dhyaayet should concentrate
dhyaanam meditation
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Skill development:

maarga path
Rishi teacher
Guru spiritual teacher
Guroh "to guru" (dative form of "guru")
guror than guru, of guru
deeksha initiation
Soota seer
kripa grace
prasaada gift
prasaadatah through gift
prayatnah effort
dhaarayet should bear
siddha perfected, mastered
siddhi skill, power, attainment
japa repeat
pada/padam state
shambava auspicious???
rami enjoyment??, ramye (enjoyable), ramam (enjoying)
laabha obtain
labhyate obtained
sulabham easy to attain
durlabham difficult to attain
praapnah acquire
praapyate obtained
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People:

Purusha soul/person (e.g., purushaartha, goals of life)
jeeva living being
janaah people
narah person
raajah king
stree woman
svapater of one's own husband
aashramam stage of life
jaati caste, social position
keerti reputation
pushti well-being
vaktaaro speakers
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Personal adjectives:

apabhramsha foolish
bhraanta deluded
bhraanti illusion
muDhaaste ?blindly?
kula family
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Adjectives:

saakshaat visible
sphuTa clear
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Purpose

artha purpose, goal, money
durlabha difficult to attain
viniyoga purpose
svachchhandam one's own way
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Love

guNa emotional qualities
preetya love
iccha desire, will
bhakti devotion
pradehi please give
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Life Cycle

deha body
dehi embodied one
samsaara worldy existence
janma birth
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Places

Loka/loko location, world
Lokeshu in the world(s)
trailokye in the three worlds
jagat (entire) world
vishvaworld/creation
laya place
nilaye without any abode
nivaaso dwelling
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Place names:

kailaasa Mount Kailas, a.k.a., heaven
Kaashee Kashi, a.k.a. Benares
jaahnavee Ganges River
prayaag the confluence of the rivers Ganga, Yamuna, and Saraswati (the third one being the mystical unobserveable one that happens to merge there)
gayaa pilgrimage place in Bihar for making offerings to ancestors
akshaya a famous Banyan tree near Prayaag (?allahabad?)
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Forms of God & Hindu Characters

Brahma the absolute; the creator
Shiva ("The Auspicious One", cf "shubha") auspicious; God as Self
Shakti power, energy
Shankara Shiva, Shiva's incarnation the Hindu philosopher
Ish Master
Ishvara Master, Best of Masters
Vishveshvara master of the world, a name of Shiva used in Kashi
Paarvati of-the-mountains, Shiva's wife
Aatmaa Self
Maya Form; often "illusion"
Bhagavaan Lord, God
Devataa a god
deva god
divya divine
Devi goddess
Devesha of the gods
asura demon(s)
pannagaah snake-demons
haahaa a singing angel
huuhuu another singing angel
gaNa obstacle
gaNesh Ganesh, the elephant-headed god, literally, the Lord of Obstacles
gaNaish by followers of Ganesh
gandharvaish by singing angels
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Verbs

smaret should remember
bhavet should become
sevanaat should serve
pibet should drink
japet should repeat
peetva having drunk
kuru do-imperative
kuryaat should do
prakurveeta should do (it) for (him)
Kritah done
kaarana an act
karma action, karma
karaaniha: karaane--?makes/becomes; iha--only?
karma action
Namaami we bow
Namo (I) bow
asi (you) are)
vadaamy (I) speak
praNamya having bowed down
uvaacha (he) spoke
uchyate is said, is called
charate goes along
udayah arising
smritvaa having remembered
shrunushwa listen
shoShaNam drying up
deepanam igniting
taarakam crossing over
haranam destroying
nivaaranam putting an end to
siddhi obtaining
dhyaanam meditating
vinaashanam destruction
namo ?I bow down?
namah ?bowing?
sthitam/sthitaa abiding
vardhanam increasing
parityajya abandoning
bhaavayet should think
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Word about language:

prashna question
pruchchhataa asked
aksha syllable
shabda word
kathyate is called
naama name
aajnaam command
gukaarah doing "gu", i.e., the syllable "gu"
rukaarah doing "ru", i.e., the syllable "ru"
varNo letter
bhaasakah indicating, symbolizing
chandaamsi verses
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Religious practices:

prapoojyate worshipped
aaraadhanam worship
yajna pilgrimage
vrata vow
tapa austerity
daana charity
japah repetition
teertha place of pilgrimage
shuddha pure
vishuddha ?purified?
vairaagya detachment
mantram mantra
shreshTham ?sanctified?, highest
krom, kr-om doing Om
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Ethics:

paapa sin
punya virtue
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Time:

Purah in the past
puraana stories of olden times
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Counting:

tri three, (e.g., trishu lokeshu (in the three worlds)
chatur four
aneka uncountable
prathamo first
dviteeyo second
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Writings:

stotra hymn
mantra mantra, a repeatable verse
yantra yantras are like mandalas
tantra tantras are a class of scriptures
geeta song
veda (written) knowledge
vidyaah knowledge
shaastra teachings
puraana histories
itihaas ?documentary?
smruti memoirs, recollections
shaiva aagama shiva scriptures
shaakta aagama shakti scriptures
aagama received scriptures
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Plants:

beeja seed
kamala flower?
moola root
anjali lotus
ambuja lotus (e.g., paadaambujam, lotus feet)
phalam fruit
vaTah banyan tree
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Other:

vidha type
vidhaani types
kshetram the field, the area
deepa candle
andhakaarah darkness
shikhara mountain
paarvat mountains
prakaasha light
teja light
tejasaam light
jalam water (nominative form)
udakam water
panka mire
arNava ocean
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Body Parts:

shirasi on the head
padam/paada foot/feet
charaNam feet
deha body
vaktra mouth, tongue
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Common Objects:

keelakam nail
bhojanam food
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Unclassified:

graasakam swallower
upakaaraka helpful
kartavyo should be made
maNishibhih by the wise
guuDha conceiled
avagaahasyaa of bathing
ucchishTa leftover
moorteh of form
moortim to form
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Unknown:

parivritta patra kamalair
ruchchaatan ??
utkeernam
taddyotam
deepaankura graahinam
pratyakshaakshara vigraham gurupadam
vibhum shaashvatam
sandhaana naayakam
-o gurur buddhyaatman-o naanyat

Copyright 2004-2007, Thomas C Veatch. All rights reserved.